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Assessment of Ground Water Pollution by Heavy Metals in Some Residential Areas in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Najmaldin Ezaldin Hassan and Siliva Jasim Mohammed
Faculty of Science, Environmental Department, University of Zakho, Kurdistan region, Iraq
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to NEH

Received: 09-01-2023 Accepted: 08-02-2023 Published: 09-02-2023

Groundwater is a precious resource, and the life of humans depends on its quality. Public health is 
extremely concerned about the contamination of groundwater with heavy metals that come from 
either anthropogenic or naturally occurring soil sources since it can have detrimental impacts on 
both plant and animal life. The main objective of the present study was to determine and assess 
the concentration of heavy metal contamination in groundwater and to understand potential 
sources of contamination. Heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, and Cd are examined. Atomic 
Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) testing was done on groundwater samples that were taken 
from 10 wells in the study area. In groundwater samples, physical factors, including Electrical 
Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and metals like Cd and Pb were found to be over 
the allowed levels advised by international standards. The analysis revealed that the levels of Cd 
and Pb in the groundwater samples exceeded those recommended by the World Health 
Organization, Environment Production Agency and Iraqi standards. According to the findings, the 
maximum concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were, respectively, 0.693, 0.42, 0.402,
0.0851, 0.068, and 0.04 mg/L. The groundwater samples from the research area demonstrated 
levels of the heavy metals in the following order: Cd> Pb> Zn> Cu> Mn> Fe. It was concluded that 
two heavy metals, cadmium and lead, and the percolation of dissolved salts were to blame for the 
groundwater's declining quality. Due to elevated amounts of harmful metals, the community's 
groundwater is therefore dangerous for drinking in some areas. It was recommended that either 
chemical precipitation, ion exchange, or reverse osmosis be used on a regular basis to treat the 
heavy metal concentration in groundwater sources.


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