Beeswax Coating Loaded with Putrescine to Enhance the Quality and Shelf Life of Guava Fruit cv. Allahabad Safeda
Kaur P, Singh V, Singh M and Saini PK
P.G. Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College Amritsar, 143002, India
Correspondence and requests should be addressed to VS
Received: 13-11-2022 Accepted: 16-12-2022 Published: 24-12-2022
The present investigation entitled “Beeswax coating loaded with putrescine to enhance the quality and shelf life of guava fruit cv. Allahabad Safeda” was conducted in Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar during 2021-22. The fruits were harvested and treated with beeswax 5 % + putrescine 1 mM, beeswax 5 % + putrescine 2 mM, beeswax 5 % + putrescine 3 mM, beeswax 10 % + putrescine 1 mM, beeswax 10 % + putrescine 2 mM and beeswax 10 % + putrescine 3 mM while control fruits were dipped in plain water. All the treated and control fruits were packed in corrugated fibre boxes (CFB) and stored at ambient condition as well 95 % RH for 15 days. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design replicated thrice. The fruits from each treatment were analyzed for physico-biochemical characteristics at an interval of three days. The results revealed that physiological loss in weight, spoilage loss, TSS/TA and carotenoids of fruits increased with storage intervals whereas fruit firmness, TA, total phenols and chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ showed declining trend with the advancement of storage period. Other parameter like TSS showed an increasing trend at earlier stages of storage and later on start declining. The results reflected that beeswax @ 5 % + putrescine @ 3 mM showed a significant reduction in weight loss, spoilage loss and carotenoids while maintained highest firmness, TSS, titratable acidity, total phenol content, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b as compared to other treatments as well as uncoated fruit.
Keywords: Guava; Quality; Shelf life; Putrescine; Beeswax; Ambient storage
Citation: : Kaur P, Singh V, Singh M and Saini PK (2022) Beeswax Coating Loaded with Putrescine to Enhance the Quality and Shelf Life of Guava Fruit cv. Allahabad Safeda. Environ Sci Arch 1(STI-1): 22-33.
Abbasi N, Ali I, Hafi IA, Alenazi MM and Shafiq M (2019) Effects of putrescine application on peach fruit during storage. Sustainability 11:11-17.
Ali A, Muhammad MTM, Sijam K and Siddiqui Y (2011) Effect of chitosan coatings on the physicochemical characteristics of Eksotika II papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit during cold storage. Food Chemistry 124:620-626.
Arora A, Sairam RK and Srivastava GC (2002) Oxidative stress and antioxidative system in plants. Current Sciencei82:1222-1238.
Barman K, Asrey R, Pal RK, Kaur C and Jha SK (2014) Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L) fruits during storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51:111-117.
Barnes JD, Balaguer L, Manrique E, Elvira S and Davison AW (1992) A reappraisal of the use of DMSO for the extraction and determination of chlorophlylls a and b in lichens and higher plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 32:85-100.
Barrera E, Gil J, Restrepo A, Mosquera K and Durango DA (2015) Coating of chitosan and propolis extract for the postharvest treatment of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv.Hawaiiana). Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 68:7667-7678.
Bogha TT, Sawate AR, Kshirsagar RB and Bochare SS (2020) Studies on physical, chemical and mineral evaluation of guava (Psidium Guajava L.). The Pharma Innovation International Journal 9:117-119.
Davarynejad G, Zarei M, Ardakani E and Nasarabadi ME (2013) Influence of putrescine application on storability, postharvest quality and antioxidant activity of two Iraninan apricot cultivars. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 5:212-219.
Garasiya VR, Patel NM, Bhaduria HS and Wankhade VR (2013) Effect of plant growth regulators on quality of winter season guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L-49 (Sardar). Asian Journal of Horticulture 8:347-349.
Ghayempour S, Montazer M and Rad MM (2015) Tragacanth gum as a natural polymer wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 81:514-520.
Jain N, Dhawan K, Malhotra S and Singh R (2003) Biochemistry of fruit ripening in guava composition and enzymatic changes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58:309-315.
Jhalegar MJ, Sharma RR, Pal RR and Rana V (2011) Effect of post harvest treatments with polyamines on physiological and biochemical attributes of Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Allison. Fruits. 67:13-22.
Kader AA (2002) Postharvest biology and technology: an overview. Postharvest Biology and Technology 3311:39-47.
Kaur R and Kumar NR (2013) Pollen foraging activity of Apis mellifera during autumn season. Halteres 4:12-14.
Khalek EI (2018) Impact of some post-harvest safe treatments on maintain quality and extending life of guava fruits during cold storage. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 45:237-256.
Kramer GF, Wang CY, Conway WS (1989) Correlation of reduced softening and increased polyamines levels during low-oxygen storage of ‘McIntosh’ apples. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 114:942–946.
Lester GE (2000) Polyamines and their cellular anti-senescence properties in honey dew muskmelon fruit. Plant Science 160:105-112.
Malik AU, Singh Z and Tan SC (2006) Exogenous application of polyamines improves shelf life and fruit quality of mango. Acta Horticulturae 291–296.
Martinez RD, Serrano M, Carbonell A, Burgos OL, Riquelme F and Valero D (2002) Effect of post harvest putrescine treatment on extending shelf life and reducing mechanical damage in apricot. Journal of Food Science 67:1706-1712.
Maruti S, Mallikarjun GA, Kavya K, Jagadish SL and Bhuvaneshwari G (2022) Role of postharvest treatment of polyamines on biochemical characterstics and shelf life of papaya var. red lady fruits during ambient storage. The Pharma Innovation International Journal 11:538-544.
Mirdegha H, Rahemi M, Castillo S, et al. (2007) Prestorage application of polyamines by pressure or immersion improves shelf life of pomegranate stored at chilling temperature by increasing endogenous polyamine levels. Posthavest Biology and Technology 44:26-33.
Mirdehghan S H, Khanamani Z and Shamshiri MH (2013a) Preharvest foliar application of putrescine on postharvest quality of fresh pistachio nut. Acta Horticulturae 1012:299-304.
Mirdehghan SH, Rahimi S and Esmaeilizadeh M (2013b) Improving the postharvest characteristics of table grape by pre harvest application of polyamines. Acta Horticulturae 1012293-298.
Mukdisari Y, Suketi K and Drajad W (2016) Fruit coating with chitosan and beeswax to extend Papaya shelf life. Journal of Tropical Crop Science 3:93-98.
Oliveira LFG, Coelho ME, Berbet PA and Coelho FC (2004) Evaluation of cultivar golden in storage in modified atmosphere package. Revista Brasileia de Armazenamento29:137-142.
Pandey S, Ranade SA, Nagar PK and Kumar N (2000) Role of polyamines and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence. Journal of Biosciences 25:291-299.
Pradhan N, Rani R and David J (2021) A review on utility of an astonishing fruit (Psidium guajava L.) Journal of Science and Technology 6:60-75.
Rehman AM, Asi MR, Hameed A and Bourquin LD (2020) Effect of postharvest application of aloe vera gel on shelf life, activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, and quality of ˊGolaˋ guava fruit. Foods 9:1361.
Samson SP and Straus MC (2010) Postharvest technology of horticultural crops. Oxford Book Company/Mehra Offset Press, Delhi.
Seleshi G, Woldetsadik K and Azene M (2019) Effect of calcium chloride dipping and bees wax coating on the shelf life and quality of nectarine (Prunus persica L.) Batsch var. nucipersica) fruits. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research 6:71-78.
Serrano M, Martinez-Romero D, Guillen F and Valero D (2003) Effect of exogenous putrescine on improving shelf life of four plum cultivars. Postharvest Biology and Technology 30:259-271.
Singh H, Kachwaya DS, Kuchi VS, et al. (2017) Edible oil coatings prolong shelf life and improve quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience 5:837-843.
Sultan M, Hafez OM, Saleh M and Youssef AM (2021) Smart edible coating films based on chitosan and beeswax pollen grains for the postharvest preservation of Le Conte pear. RSC Advances11:9572-9585.
Swain J and Hills WE (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica I. the quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 10:63-68.
Theiss C, Bohley P and Voigt J (2002) Regulation by polyamines of ornithine decarboxylase activity and cell division in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiology 128:1470-1479.
Uzzaman S, Akanda KM, Mehjabin S and Parvez GMM (2018) A short review on a nutritional fruit guava. Toxicology Research 1:1-8.
Valero D, Martinez RD, Serrano M and Riquelme F (1998) Influence of postharvest treatment with putrescine and calcium on endogenous polyamines, firmness and abscisic acid in lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm cv. Verna). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry46:2102–2109.
Valiathan S and Athmaselvi KA (2018) Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies. International Agrophysics 32:193–202.
Verma S and Mishra SN (2005) Putrescine alleviation of growth in salt stressed Brassica juncea by inducing antioxidative defense system. Journal of Plant Physiology162:669-677.
Walters DR (2003) Polyamines and plant disease. Phytochemistry 64:97-107.
Wannabussapawich B and Seraypheap K (2018) Effects of putrescine treatment on the quality attributes and antioxidant activities of Nam Dok Mai No. 4 mango fruit during storage. Scientia Horticulturae 233:22-28.
Wills RH, Graham D and Joyce D (1998) Postharvest an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit vegetables and ornamentals CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
Zahedi SM, Hosseini MS, Karimi M and Ebrahimzadeh A (2019) Effects of postharvest polyamine application and edible coating on maintaining quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Langra during cold storage. Food Science and Nutrition7:433–441.
License: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Visit for more details http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.