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Insects and Arachnids as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Lahore

Saffora Riaz1, Noor Virk1,Farkhanda Manzoor1, Zulfiqar Ali2
1Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 54590
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to SR 

Received: 09-12-2022 Accepted: 20-01-2023 Published: 23-01-2023

Heavy metal toxicity is a profound reason for the decline in population of insect pollinators as it 
transfers through food chain and affect the physiological aspect of the insects. Thus, the heavy 
metal analysis in different insects such as butterfly (Pieris rapae), honey bee (Apis dorsata) and 
arachnid spider (Pholcus phalangioides) were examined by using atomic absorption 
spectrophotometer. The aim of the study was to analyse the contamination and accumulation of 
heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni) in insect species as ecological indicator. It was revealed that the 
mercury (Hg) was in the highest concentration in all the insect samples and the nickel in lowest 
concentration. Data was statistically evaluated using one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis with 
significant value 0.05 was applied in case of p<0.05 suggested that all insects were good ecological 
indicator. There was no significant difference in lead, chromium and nickel concentration of honey 
bees, spiders and butterflies. Honey bees varied significantly p< 0.02 with the spiders and 
butterflies for cadmium. For mercury, the spiders and honey bees were non-significant and the 
butterflies were significant p< 0.03 with the spiders and honey bees. Present study indicated that 
heavy metals contamination is the major environmental and health concern in Pakistan and insects can be used as bioindicator for environmental pollution.


Riaz S, Virk N, Manzoor F and Ali Z (2023) Insects and Arachnids as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Lahore. Environ Sci Arch 2(STI-2):23-33


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