Molecular Biomarkers as Key Factors to Evaluate the Extent of Industrial Pollution Exposure
Sukanya Mehra1 and Pooja Chadha2
1PG Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, Punjab, India 143001
2 Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India 143001
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to PC
Received: 06-10-2022 Accepted: 08-01-2023 Published: 12-01-2023
Over recent decades, environmental pollution is rapidly increasing because of the anthropogenic
activities of uncontrolled development, for example, industry, transport, agriculture, and
urbanization, which generates harmful contaminants for living organisms including humans. These
contaminants get accumulated in the organism via different routes and get bioaccumulated in
different tissues exerting detrimental effects at different levels (molecular, cellular and
physiological levels). The measurement of biological assays in sentinel species to access quality and
changes of the environment is known as environmental biomonitoring which provides an indication
of environmental stress. Several biomarkers evaluate the nature and extent of the exposure and
evaluation of adverse biological responses to pollutants in a biomonitoring program of the aquatic
environment. These include behavioral response, genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus
assay) and oxidative stress. Here we present the importance of these biomarkers.
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