top of page
Windows 7 ultimate collection of wallpapers (60).jpg

A Comparative Investigation of Rain Water Quality Parameters Between Natural and Industrial Areas in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Najmaldin Ezaldin Hassan


DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.8107283


Even though rainfall is thought of as a source that is free from contamination, human activities, especially those in the industrial and agricultural sectors, contaminate this clean kind of water. This study was conducted in two regions (Kwashe industrial area and Gara natural area) for the evaluation of rain water quality and indirectly the comparison between the evaluation of air pollution load created in both areas in Duhok governorate, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. For this investigation, seven samples of each area were collected in the months of January and February 2023 during rainfall and they were compared. After data collection, a statistical analysis was carried out to determine the variables that affected rainwater quality. According to the current study, the first rain's water quality was significantly worse than the second rain's due to pollution. It was determined that there was a substantial difference between the first and second rain, favoring increased air pollution in the industrial region. The variation in pollutant concentrations of rainfall provides a general idea of the area's air pollution load. The outcomes of the quality evaluation program largely agreed with those found by a number of other researchers. The findings of the rainwater quality test show that pH values were lower in the Kwashe area and that some values throughout the research period exceeded the WHO-recommended limits for transportable. The results of the quality analyses indicate that it is not recommended to drink rainwater that has not been treated when it falls directly on an industrial area since it poses a health risk. The most samples of rainwater that were taken at the study site were inside of acceptable ranges for drinking use, except pH in industrial area. pH, EC, TDS, DO, alkalinity, acidity, hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, COD, BOD, Cl-, and etc. were among the water quality metrics measured. The pollutants in the rainwater can be removed and before being used as drinking water, it should often go through some form of filtration treatment to reduce the sediment load.


Faculty of Science, Environmental Department, University of Zakho, Kurdistan region, Iraq



Hassan NE (2023) A Comparative Investigation of Rain Water Quality Parameters Between Natural and Industrial Areas in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Environ Sci Arch 2(2):131-140.


1. Abduljabar P, Hassan N, Karimi H (2020) Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Spring Water Sources in Amediye District, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Health and Life Sciences 6(1). DOI: 10.5812/ijhls.100324.

2. AC MS, JM SM (1992) Association between calcium content of drinking water and fractures in children. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria 37(6):461-5.

3. Achadu OJ, Ako FE and Dalla CL (2013) Quality assessment of stored harvested rainwater in Wukari, North-Eastern Nigeria: impact of storage media. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) 7(5):25-32.

4. Akoto O, Darko G, Nkansah MA (2011) Chemical composition of rainwater over a mining area in Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research 5(4):847-54.

5. Ali K, Momin GA, Tiwari S, et al. (2004) Fog and precipitation chemistry at Delhi, North India. Atmospheric Environment 38(25):4215-22.

6. Amin MT and Alazba AA (2011) Probable sources of rainwater contamination in a rainwater harvesting system and remedial options. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(12):1054-64.

7. Asamoah DN and Amorin R (2011) Assessment of the quality of bottled/sachet water in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem municipality (TM) of Ghana. Research journal of applied sciences, Engineering and Technology 25;3(5):377-85.

8. Bharti PK, Singh V, Tyagi PK (2017) Assessment of rainwater quality in industrial area of rural Panipat (Haryana), India. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science 2(3):219-23.

9. Cerqueira MR, Pinto MF, Derossi IN, et al. (2014) Chemical characteristics of rainwater at a southeastern site of Brazil. Atmospheric Pollution Research 5(2):253-61.

10. Chigor VN, Umoh VJ, Okuofu CA, et al. (2012) Water quality assessment: surface water sources used for drinking and irrigation in Zaria, Nigeria are a public health hazard. Environmental monitoring and assessment 184:3389-400.

11. Chughtai M, Mustafa S and Mumtaz M (2014) Study of physicochemical parameters of rainwater: A case study of Karachi, Pakistan. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2014.

12. Cobbina SJ, Michael K, Salifu L, et al. (2013) Rainwater quality assessment in the Tamale municipality. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 2(5):1-5.

13. Despins C, Farahbakhsh K and Leidl C (2009) Assessment of rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA 58(2):117-34.

14. Donato F, Monarca S, Premi S, et al. (2003) Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. III. Tumors, urolithiasis, fetal malformations, deterioration of the cognitive function in the aged and atopic eczema. Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunita 15(1):57-70.

15. Dušek J (2002) Weiner, ER: Applications of Environmental Chemistry. A Practical Guide for Environmental Professionals.

16. Edition F (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle. 38(4):104-8.

17. Evans CA, Coombes PJ, Dunstan RH, et al (2007) Identifying the major influences on the microbial composition of roof harvested rainwater and the implications for water quality. Water Science and Technology 55(4):245-53.

18. Farreny R, Morales-Pinzón T, Guisasola A, et al. (2011) Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: Quantity and quality assessments in Spain. Water research 45(10):3245-54.

19. Hassan N and Umer M (2022) Primary Treatment of Landfill Leachate Effects on Heavy Metal and Soil Chemical Properties in Kwashe Industrial Area in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences 5(1):1-9.

20. Hassan N, Al-Barware MA (2016) Assessment of wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq. Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal 1(3):7-13.

21. Hassan NE and Mohammed SJ (2023) Assessment of Ground Water Pollution by Heavy Metals in Some Residential Areas in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Environ Sci Arch 2(STI-2):35-44.

22. Hassan NE and Umer MI (2022) Improving physicochemical properties of municipal solid waste landfill leachate by aeration and filtration in Kwashe industrial area in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. InAIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2660, No. 1, p. 020111). AIP Publishing LLC.

23. Hassan NE and Umer MI (2023) Potential of local plants as phytoremediator of polluted soil in kwashe industrial area duhok province, kurdistan region/iraq.

24. Hassan NE and Ali SA (2016) Screening and analysis of water quality of Zea River in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci. 3:61-7.

25. Hassan NE and Umerb MI (2022) Impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on ambient air quality in kwashe municipal solid waste landfill in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Eurasian Chemical Communications, 4(10), 1012-1021.

26. Helmreich B and Horn H (2009) Opportunities in rainwater harvesting. Desalination 248(1-3):118-24.

27. Jamal AS, Ahmed S, Akter S, et al. (2020) Spatial Variation of Rainwater Quality Parameters at Khulna City of Bangladesh. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 8(2):49-54.

28. Jameel AA and Sirajudeen J (2006) Risk assessment of physico-chemical contaminants in groundwater of Pettavaithalai Area, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu–India. Environmental monitoring and assessment 123:299-312.

29. John CK, Pu JH, Moruzzi R, et al. (2021) Health-risk assessment for roof-harvested rainwater via QMRA in Ikorodu area, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Water and Climate Change 12(6):2479-94.

30. Jothivenkatachalam K, Nithya A and Mohan SC (2010) Correlation analysis of drinking water quality in and around Perur block of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry 3(4):649-54.

31. Karunakaran K, Thamilarasu P and Sharmila R (2009) Statistical study on physicochemical characteristics of groundwater in and around Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India. E-Journal of chemistry. 2009 Jul 1;6(3):909-14.
32. Khanh NH (2000) Air emission and the acidity of rain water of Hanoi City. Progress in Nuclear Energy 37(1-4):41-6.

33. Kuo YM, Jang CS, Yu HL, et al. (2013) Identifying nearshore groundwater and river hydrochemical variables influencing water quality of Kaoping River Estuary using dynamic factor analysis. Journal of Hydrology 486:39-47.

34. Lee M, Kim M, Kim Y, et al. (2017) Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam. Journal of environmental management 200:400-6.

35. Levine DI and Yang D (2014) The impact of rainfall on rice output in Indonesia. National Bureau of Economic Research.

36. Mehta P (2010) Science behind acid rain: analysis of its impacts and advantages on life and heritage structures. south Asian journal of tourism and heritage 3(2):123-32.

37. Mohamed AA, Kombo UM and Kombo MA (2019) Rain Water Characterization at Urban and Rural (North B) Unguja. Hydro Science & Marine Engineering 1(2), 15-22.

38. Palanisamy PN, Geetha A, Sujatha M, et al. (2007) Assessment of ground water quality in and around gobichettipalayam town erode district, Tamilnadu. E-Journal of Chemistry 4(3):434-9.

39. Pandiarajan A, Shanmugaselvan R and Dheenadayalan MS (2023) Environmental Monitoring of Bore Water Quality at Selected Locations in Kottapatti Village. Environ Sci Arch 2(1): 59-64.

40. Prasad Shukla S and Mukesh S (2010) Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 62(3):172-80.

41. Rice EW, Bridgewater L, American Public Health Association and editors (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC: American public health association; 2012 Feb.

42. Sakai A, Hagihara Y, Asada K, et al. (2004) Management of rainfall-related environmental risks in urban area. Journal of Risk Research 7(7-8):731-44.

43. Sardana M, Priyadarshi A and Pandit DN (2022) Implications of Climatic Change on Physico-chemical Parameters of Freshwater and Fisheries: A Review. Environ Sci Arch 1(1):15-22.

44. Sharma MP, Singal SK, Patra S (2008) Water quality profile of Yamuna river, India. Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment 3:19-24.

45. Thomas PR and Greene GR (1993) Rainwater quality from different roof catchments. Water science and technology 28(3-5):291-9.

46. Usharani K, Umarani K, Ayyasamy PM, et al. (2010) Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Noyyal River and ground water quality of Perur, India. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 14(2).

47. World Health Organization (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: second addendum. Vol. 1, Recommendations. World Health Organization.

48. Younos TM, Bohdan R, Anderson E, et al. (1998) Evaluation of rooftop rainfall collection-cistern storage systems in southwest Virginia.

49. Yousif KM (2016) Effectiveness of chlorine treatment water supplies. International Journal of Current Research, 8, (10), 40319-40324.

50. Zdeb M, Zamorska J, Papciak D, et al. (2020) The quality of rainwater collected from roofs and the possibility of its economic use. Resources 9(2):12.


License: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Visit for more details

bottom of page