Biochar is a promising and viable fertilizer carrier for microbial fertilizers due to its porosity (Wang et al., 2023). Biochar is a type of charcoal produced in the slow pyrolysis of organic materials, such as agricultural waste (Aziz et al., 2023). Pyrolysis, the method used to create biochar, is the conversion of organic materials into a stable form of carbon that can survive in soil for a very long time (hundreds to thousands of years). Recently, a co-pyrolysis technique for improving sewage sludge biochar's performance and immobilizing heavy metals was presented (Fan et al., 2023; He et al., 2023). When organic matter is heated in the absence of oxygen, it can break down into its constituent components without catching fire, resulting in the development of biochar. In order to create biochar, which may be used as a soil amendment to enhance soil health and fertility, a variety of organic waste products, including agricultural waste, forestry residue, and sewage sludge, are employed in the production process. Contrary to conventional charcoal, which is largely used as fuel, biochar is applied to soil as a soil supplement to increase soil fertility and production (Khedulkar et al., 2023). This enables it to absorb carbon from the air, lowering the concentration of greenhouse gases and lessening the effects of climate change.
1Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, Punjab, India - 143001
2Department of Zoology, DAV College, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
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