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Building a Sustainable Future: Innovative Application of China Clay from Kerala in LC3

Nipin Krishna AR, Vidya Sadasivan, Anagh UP, Reesha Bharath


DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.8107309


Cement manufacturing has significant adverse environmental impacts. Clinker production by heating a mixture of limestone, clay, and other minerals at a high temperature in a kiln releases a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, contributing significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. There is a need for more sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional cement. In the scenario where even geopolymer failed to be a sustainable successor of conventional cement, LC3 is a potential solution. LC3 stands for Limestone Calcined Clay Cement, a blend of limestone, calcined clay, and a small amount of gypsum. The selection of clay is of utmost importance in creating the best outcome for LC3. The properties and performance of the resulting cement can vary depending on the specific type of clay used. Metakaolin is the supplementary cementitious material that contributes to the properties of LC3. Metakaolin is known for its high pozzolanic activity to form additional cementitious compounds. Two clays, namely Hindustan special China clay(C1) and Indian Clay(C2) collected from different parts of Kerala, were subjected to the EDAX test for chemical comparison with pure kaolin. By analysing the weight change over time, TGA provided information about the composition of the kaolinite present in the clay samples. C1 and C2 were activated by heating them in a muffle furnace at varying temperatures of 650–750 °C and holding durations of 30-90 minutes. The changes in the crystalline structure of these materials were evaluated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). This study aims to investigate the feasibility of utilising locally soured clay in Kerala for the production of LC3 (Limestone Calcined Clay Cement).


NIT Calicut, Department of Civil Engineering, Kattangal, Kozhikode, India, 673601



Krishna NAR, Sadasivan V, Anagh UP and Bharath R (2023) Building a Sustainable Future: Innovative Application of China Clay from Kerala in LC3. Environ Sci Arch 2(2):141-155.


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