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Insects and Arachnids as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Lahore

Saffora Riaz, Noor Virk, Farkhanda Manzoor, Zulfiqar Ali

23 Jan 2023

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7562242


Heavy metal toxicity is a profound reason for the decline in population of insect pollinators as it transfers through food chain and affect the physiological aspect of the insects. Thus, the heavy metal analysis in different insects such as butterfly (Pieris rapae), honey bee (Apis dorsata) and arachnid spider (Pholcus phalangioides) were examined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The aim of the study was to analyse the contamination and accumulation of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni) in insect species as ecological indicator. It was revealed that the mercury (Hg) was in the highest concentration in all the insect samples and the nickel in lowest concentration. Data was statistically evaluated using one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis with significant value 0.05 was applied in case of p<0.05 suggested that all insects were good ecological indicator. There was no significant difference in lead, chromium and nickel concentration of honey bees, spiders and butterflies. Honey bees varied significantly p< 0.02 with the spiders and butterflies for cadmium. For mercury, the spiders and honey bees were non-significant and the butterflies were significant p< 0.03 with the spiders and honey bees. Present study indicated that heavy metals contamination is the major environmental and health concern in Pakistan and insects can be used as bioindicator for environmental pollution.


Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 54590
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to SR



Riaz S, Virk N, Manzoor F and Ali Z (2023) Insects and Arachnids as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Lahore. Environ Sci Arch 2(STI-2):23-33.


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