ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ARCHIVES
VOLUME - I
ISSUE - 2
Environmental Conservation Strategies in City of Joondalup Coastal and Foreshore Management Plan 2014 -2024
The main objective of the City of Joondalup Coastal Foreshore Management Plan between 2014 and 2024 is to conserve, ameliorate the natural belongings of the city, and protracted conservancy of the environment and ecological significance for forthcoming gen erations by applying or generate, integrate, interpret and action of different environmental management mechanisms which include monitoring and reporting, education and information, voluntarism, command and control. This paper reveals the environmental conservation strategies under this plan.
Responses of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) to Low Levels of Cadmium Compared to Ascorbic Acid, Biomin and Potassium Sulfate
An experiment was conducted in 2019 in pots to study the response of okra seedlings (two weeks old) to low cadmium chloride concentration (0.001 and 0.0001 ppm), compared to ascorbic acid (50 and 100 ppm), biomin (3 and 6 ppm) and potassium sulfate (50 ppm) as well as control. Complete randomized design with four replicates was used. Fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots as well as chlorophyll was determined. The results showed that all treatments had no significant differences compared to control, but all treatments except potassium sulfate caused significant increase in root length compared to control treatment. Biomin at 6 ppm caused a significant increase of plant fresh weight whereas at 3 and 6 ppm caused a significant increase of plant dry weight. Biomin and potassium sulfate caused a significant increase of chlorophyll.
Effect of Chemical NPK, Organic and Foliar (High Potash) Fertilizers on Potato Growth and Tuber Yield
A field experiment was conducted in spring season 2017 in Babylon, Iraq, to study the effect of fertilization types (as individual or interaction) on growth and tuber yield of potato (Revera variety). The experiment included four levels of Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium (15-15-15): (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha), two levels of organic fertilizer (0 and 12 tons.ha-1 of fermented and decomposed palm leaves, and two levels of foliar fertilizer (control and spraying of 1% high potash soluble fertilizer (36% K2O, 15% N and 15% P2O5). Tuber seeds were planted on 16/01/2017. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed that addition of high level of compound fertilizer significantly increased vegetative growth (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll) and tuber yield to 32.060 t ha-1, compared to low level (50 kg/ha) which achieved 24.770 t ha-1. Foliar fertilizer only increased leaf area, whereas organic fertilizers caused a significant increases of plant length, leaf area and increasing tuber yield to 29.260 ha-1.
Bioluminescent Mushrooms: Boon for Environmental Health
Mushrooms contain secondary metabolites in their fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth which are higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Mushrooms have been used in many sides of human activity for many years. Bioluminescence mushrooms gained more attention. Researchers focused on the ecological role of bioluminescence mushrooms as attracting insects for spore dispersal, which may be beneficial for fungi growing on the forest floor where wind flow is low. In this review, we will focus on some famous bioluminescent mushrooms, their ecology, bioluminescence mechanisms and their ecological benefits.
Biomedical Waste Management: A Much-Needed Thrust Area for Environmental Protection in the Present Era
Biomedical waste (BMW) is the waste produced during the diagnosis, treatment, vaccination of humans or animals, as well as during research activities related to the development or testing of biological products. Inappropriate disposal of BMW is a potential threat not only to humans but also to the safety of environment. Waste management issues are creating day-to-day problems as they have profound effect on drastically changing global environment including air, water and soil pollution. There is a need to handle BMW by safe and reliable methods in order to prevent it as a public health problem. At the same time safe management of BMW is social and legal obligation of the people supporting and funding health-care activities. A much-needed thrust to environmental protection has been provided in the recent past that elucidates such standards to be followed by the common BMW treatment and disposal facility operators.
Organic Farming: A Step towards Better Environment
Organic agriculture is a type of farming that avoids the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers in order to protect the health of the soil, environment, and people. Farming techniques should be changed to have a beneficial environmental impact. Due to the presence of more chemical residues in conventional agriculture, food has negative health impacts. Organic farming has grown in popularity as a result of food quality and safety concerns. Organic farming is environment friendly. It is beneficial to the soil's long-term fertility. Organic farming is the finest option for long-term farming since the yield does not diminish with time but rather grows. Integrated organic farming is a zero-waste method in which waste from one operation is used as a resource or nutrient in another. Farmers should consider organic farming as a viable strategy for combating climate change. India has emerged as one of the world's leading organic producers. India has created numerous organic brands of its own. People all across the world are becoming more aware of the dangers of pesticides and are asking for organic foods. Farmers are returning to organic farming owing to the rising threats that conventional agriculture poses to production, human health, and the environment. Organic farming should continue to expand. Organic agricultural techniques should continue to increase, which will help to reduce agriculture's negative environmental implications.
Various Applications of Eco-friendly Jute and as an Alternative of Environmentally Hazardous Plastic - A Review
Jute is an amazing, incredibly sustainable, affordable and breathable fiber. It's fiber are long, soft and shiny and can spun into course, strong and durable yarn or thread which can be used to make sturdy hessain or burlap, gumy cloths and many other useful value added materials substituting hazardous plastics. Jute is an eco-fiber due to having natural UV protection, grows without the use of pesticides and fertilizers, completely biodegradable and recyclable fiber. It enhances the fertility of the soil it grows on for future crops. In engineering field, extensive research is going on due to its sustainability, durability, strength, elasticity and weight.
Effect of Process Variables on Chemical Treatment of Jute Fibers
The present study was conducted to ascertain the effect of process variables on chemical treatment of jute fiber. It was found that variables have direct impact on the quality, strength and other parameters of the fiber and with the increase of concentration of penetrating agent, the strength, extension at break and fineness were almost same, but with the increase of caustic soda concentration, the strength, extension at break and the fineness were decreased. Strength has been decreased but extension at break and fineness was unchanged with the increase of time, temperature and stabilizer concentration. With the increase of liquor ratio strength and extension at break were observed to increase but fineness was decreased.
Danio rerio as a Model Animal for Assessing Microplastic Toxicity
Microplastics are presently a major worldwide hazard, whether they come from massive plastic breakdown or directly from consumer and industrial items. By altering their physicochemical characteristics, weathering processes of plastics cause the fragmentation of polymers into microplastics. Due to delayed disposal of plastic waste, a lack of detecting equipment and specific removal techniques and a slow disposal rate, microplastics are prevalent in the environment. Microplastics are tiny enough to be easily absorbed. As a result, the presence of microplastics poses a hazard to both live species present in benthic zones and the water column. Microplastics therefore have non-lethal impacts on these creatures. In the present paper, various studies have been reviewed to find the effects of microplastics on Danio rerio (Zebrafish). Various microplastics caused epithelial damage, lipid accumulation in the liver, metabolic changes, adverse effects on gonads, obstructed fin regeneration and contraction parameters in the heart tissue of Danio rerio. Exposure to polystyrene decreased the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of F-53B which significantly reduced the body weight of Danio rerio larvae and resulted in oxidative stress and inflammation. Other sublethal effects included significant decrease in swimming distance as well as speed. Acetylcholinesterase activity of Danio rerio was remarkably inhibited by the microplastic exposure which further induced the immune responses. These findings emphasise the health hazards associated with microplastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Further studies are needed to assess the health impacts associated with microplastic exposure and their possible remedies.