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VOLUME III

ISSUE 1

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ARCHIVES

Jan-June, 2024

 

SUBMISSIONS OPEN

Published Papers

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10448182

Genotoxicity and its Applications: Allium cepa as an Appropriate Testing Model

Genotoxicity, a term derived from "geno" (genetic) and "toxicity" (harmful effects), encompasses a range of adverse biological effects related to genetic material. These effects can manifest as DNA damage, mutations and chromosomal abnormalities which can have far-reaching consequences. In this short communication, we will go through the fundamentals of genotoxicity, its applications and suitability of Allium cepa as a model for assessing genotoxicity.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10448233

Spectroscopic Determination of Permethrin Insecticide in Environmental and Agricultural Samples using Leuco Crystal Violet Reagent

A new sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of permethrin insecticide in environmental and agricultural samples has been developed. The reaction mechanism is based on complexation followed by coupling of permethrin with leuco crystal violet (LCV). This method is based on the measurement of red shift of absorbance band of LCV in the UV-Visible region of 200-800 nm. The resulting complex absorption spectra was observed at λmax = 580 nm. The color of permethrin was changed from colorless to violet by the addition of LCV. The effects of various pesticides and metal ions on the selective determination of permethrin were also studied. The analytical parameters were improved and effectively employed for permethrin assessment in a variety of environmental samples including water, soil and vegetables. The purpose of the present research was to design a method for the color complexation determination of permethrin. We have employed LCV as a reagent to form a complex with permethrin. The limit of detection was 0.34 µg mL-1 and the limit of quantification was 1.06 µg mL-1. The Sandell’s sensitivity is found 0.29×107 µg cm-2 and molar absorptivity of the colored system is 3×10-5 L mol-1cm-1. The advantages of using present method are its simplicity, selectivity and sensitivity towards the analysis of permethrin using LCV in water, soil and vegetable samples.

DOI: 10.5284/zenodo.10448251

Measurement of Background Radiation at Oracle Plastics and Sacks Company in Makurdi, Benue State

The background radiation level of Oracle Plastics and Sacs were investigated and measured using the Radiation Alert Inspector. A total of seven (7) units/departments within the company were considered: marketing, clinic waiting room, entrance, sack section, leather/shopping bag, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and injection mould units, and data were obtained from those units. The investigation revealed that the mean exposure dose rate of the background radiation within the company was 0.019 ± 0.0062 µSv/hr, and the mean annual exposure dose equivalence was 0.17 ± 0.0028 mSv/yr. The global average natural dose of background ionizing radiation for exposure dose rate as recommended by UNSCEAR (2008) was 0.274 µSv/hr. The ICRP and UNSCEAR values of the annual effective dose equivalence were 1.00 mSv/yr and 20.00 mSv/yr for individual in general public and occupational workers respectively as recommended by the organization. The average activity concentration measured from different sections ranged from 9.017 Bq/Kg (Marketing and Injection Mould) to 21.322 Bq/Kg (Polyvinyl Chloride) with a mean value of 13.413 ± 4.742 while the estimated result of excess lifetime cancer risk ranged from 0.069 (Polyvinyl Chloride) to 0.161 (Marketing, sack section and the injection mould) with a mean value of 0.118 ± 0.040. The ELCR mean value was also found to be lower than the world average safe limit of 0.29. The ELCR mean value was also found to be lower than the world average safe limit of 0.29. The Company has low-level activity of background radiation compared to other such companies around the world.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10572993

Heavy Metal Analysis in the Ground Water of Kerio Valley Sub-Water Basin, Baringo County, Kenya

Water contamination in the Kerio valley basin has been attributed mainly to the mining activities along the valley, which include Fluorspar mining and exploration of hydrocarbons. Accordingly, the water environment in the region has come under extreme stress as a result of extensive mining industries and growing urbanization. This study focused on the contamination of borehole water by selected toxic heavy metals of environmental and public health concern. Considerably large volumes of wastewater from domestic, mining industries and municipal waste resulting from industrialization and urbanization are discharged into natural water bodies such as rivers and dams in this area, which ultimately seep into ground water systems. Groundwater samples were taken from boreholes near exploratory wells and several indicators of water quality were examined in groundwater samples which revealed very high concentrations of total dissolved solids, high electrical conductivity and relatively alkaline water. Eight heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The analytical results show that the groundwater has unusual high concentrations of lead varying from 0.26 to 10.72 ppm, cadmium ranged from 0.22 to 0.29 ppm, chromium ranged from 0.09 to 0.37 ppm while manganese had high concentration in KV1 and KV8 borehole water samples posting 1.52 and 1.86 ppm respectively. The indiscriminate disposal of hazardous waste water from industrial and mining areas could be the primary source of groundwater contamination. A comparison of groundwater results with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels show that the majority of borehole water sampling stations are significantly contaminated with heavy metals. Chromium, cadmium and lead have been found in borehole water samples. The main causes of contamination in this basin is industrial discharge, random disposal of hazardous waste water and the release of untreated municipal effluents into the soil, in addition to use of fertilizers in crop production.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10658483

Toxicological Aspects Related to Environmental Arsenic Exposure

Heavy metals can be described as those naturally occurring metals or metalloids which have considerably high atomic weight. Generally, Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) are regarded as heavy metals in matters concerning public health due to their significant ill effects on the environment. Heavy metals including arsenic result in biomagnification involving a significant increase in their concentration as we move from lower to higher trophic levels across the food chain up to humans. The toxic effects depend upon many factors like the chemical nature, route, duration and dose of exposure along with the age, gender, genetic makeup and nutritional status of the exposed animals. Arsenic exists both in organic and inorganic forms and is considered to be one of the systemic toxicants known to cause damage to multiple organs even at minuscule levels of exposure. Arsenic is a necessary ultra-trace element for various organisms and has several valuable industrial applications in the manufacturing of pesticides, pyrotechnics, semiconductor devices, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, integrated circuit chips, etc. On the other hand, arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and has also been listed as Category I carcinogen for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Apart from its carcinogenic potential, arsenic also has mutagenic, teratogenic and epigenetic effects on various animals. This review briefly outlines the different modes of arsenic exposure, description of toxic effects of arsenic, its clinical manifestations and underlying molecular mechanisms as determined by various studies carried out on different animal models. Preventive measures for arsenicosis and various modes of treatment have also been discussed. Conclusively, environmental exposure to arsenic should be minimized by using appropriate protective gear and equipment, to reduce the associated health hazards.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10448219

Antibiogram And Microbial Carriage Of Campus Buses And Keke Napep Door Handles In Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University Makurdi

As people come in contact with surfaces like keyboards, office furniture, toilet doors, buses and keke door handles, there is a probability of picking up microbes deposited on them. This study is aimed at evaluating the antibiogram and microbial carriage of campus buses and keke napep door handles. Thirty swab samples were obtained from buses and keke napep door handles. The samples were taken to the laboratory where they were serially diluted and inoculated. Identification, characterization and biochemical analysis were done using standard microbiological methods. Fungal colonies were macroscopically and microscopically examined for morphology and appearance. Bacterial isolated were identified to be Staphylococcus spp., Proteus spp., Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Fungi isolated were identified to be Aspergillus niger, Mucor spp., Aspergillus fumigates, Rhizopus spp. and Yeast spp. This study has shown that for both bacterial and fungal species, Staphylococcus spp.5(33.33%) and Aspergillus niger 2(50%) had the highest occurrence while Proteus spp. 1(6.67%), Aspergillus fumigates and Mucor spp. 1(14.29%) had the least occurrence. Results of susceptibility test carried out on bacteria isolates show Staphylococcus spp. was most susceptible to levofloxacin having 21.67 ± 2.89 mean zone of inhibition and was resistant to rifampicin which had no zone of inhibition. Furthermore, using Gram-negative disc, all the isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics used except Proteus spp. which showed resistance to ciporex and nalidixic acid. Data was further analyzed at P<0.05 using ANOVA. The analysis shows that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the susceptibility analysis. This study has shown that Campus Buses door handles have higher microbial carriage than keke door handles though both can serve as a means of microbial carriage and vehicle for the transmission of disease since they are associated with pathogenic organisms thus, hygienic measures should be taken to avoid the transmission of diseases by these public surfaces in which contact is constantly made with.

DOI: 10.5284/zenodo.10448243

Environmental Conservation based on Mamar System as Local Wisdom of West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

Mamar is an adaptation strategy built by the Amarasi Community to overcome environmental conditions that do not provide a prosperous life. This study aims to analyze environmental conservation practices based on the Mamar system as local wisdom and related social structures as a mechanism for environmental conservation. Environmental conservation based on the Mamar system is implemented with mechanisms and approaches to the needs of local communities for the preservation of natural resources in the long and sustainable term. The local rules such as Nuni and Bunu played an important role in maintaining and preserving the Mamar System. In addition, local figures such as Mataf and Ketiut Po’an helped the local community to stick to the local values to preserve the Mamar area.

DOI: 10.5284/zenodo.10448257

Enzymatic Effect of Bio-Polishing of Different Types of Jute-Cotton Union Fabrics

Jute is natural fibers which are cheap, renewable and abundantly available in Bangladesh. Jute fibres are mainly used in the manufacturing of sacking and coarse cloths, carpets, and carpet backings. A small portion of jute fibres is used in apparel-making fabrics, usually blended with cotton fibres that provide cotton fabrics with high moisture absorbency as jute is one of the highest hygroscopic natural fibres (Ardon et al., 1996). They can be degraded by micro-organisms after their disposal. Natural fibres have distinct advantages during processing. Besides these advantages, natural fibre composites have some drawbacks which limit their wide-scale usage; such as they are not uniform like man-made fibres, and their properties can change batch-to-batch regarding their origin, growing and harvesting conditions. There are also compatibility problems between hydrophilic fibres and hydrophobic resin, which results in a poor fibre-matrix interface. Researchers attempted to solve the aforementioned problems of natural fibre composites to widen their usage. Most of them have tried to solve the interface problems through fibre modification by chemical or physical methods. These methods include NaOH treatment, graft copolymerization, acetylation, corona treatment etc. Enzymatic treatment of fibres is an alternative environment-friendly method that can be implemented instead of chemical methods which are in many cases harmful to the environment and worker’s health (Heikinheimo, 2002).

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10606203

Occurrence of Neoechinorhynchus sp. in Infected Organs of Lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis) in Misurata, Libya

The present study provides important insights into the existence and frequency of the Neoechinorhynchus sp. in the marine fish species Saurida undosquamis in Libya. A total of 192 specimens of Saurida undosquamis from the local market of Misurata city in Libya were collected. This extensive collection made possible a thorough investigation of the parasite's presence in this particular fish species. According to the present study, the prevalence rate of acanthocephalan helminths in Saurida undosquamis was found to be low. Out of the 192 fish specimens that were examined, only one specimen was found to be infected with Neoechinorhynchus sp. with an infection rate of 0.52%. The infected fish had an average parasite density of 4, indicating that there were four individual parasites in the fish. These parasites were found in both the anterior and posterior intestines of the infected fish. The seasonal study also revealed that the infections occurred during the winter season. This study may mark the first instance of the presence of Neoechinorhynchus sp. in Saurida undosquamis found in the coastal Mediterranean Sea waters of Misurata, Libya. The identification of a previously unknown parasite species in a new host and location significantly enhances our understanding of parasite diversity in the region. The low infection rates observed in Saurida undosquamis suggest that this fish species may not be a suitable host for the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus sp. Understanding host-parasite interactions and the factors affecting infection rates is essential for comprehending the ecology and dynamics of the parasite. By documenting the presence and characteristics of the Neoechinorhynchus sp. parasite in Saurida undosquamis, the present study fills a gap in the available scientific literature.

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10717758

Environmental Aspects of Lead Free Soldering and Study of Legislations Banning Lead Based Solders in Different Countries

Lead based solders have been in use for many years, but in recent times, they are being phased out. Lead based solders have generated environmental problems and the dissolved lead in soil is also poisonous and carcinogenic. This being the case, lead is being phased out in most countries. This paper is a review on the problems faced due to lead based solders and the legislations undertaken in various countries to tackle this problem. Legal steps have been taken in developed countries and some steps have been taken in India too. Legislations in USA, European Union, Japan and India have been discussed. A detailed view of legislations in different countries is discussed and the way forward is outlined. These steps would help to ensure that our environment is kept cleaner. It is hoped that these legislations would force researchers to discover more and more lead free alloys in the future.

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